Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions

Advanced search


Full Text:


Abstract: the current concept of the structural and functional organization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was discussed in part one of the literature review. In the second part, we describe the development of the BBB concept. Beginning from the twentieth of the last century, the process of accumulation of knowledge about BBB is characterized by progressive increase of fundamental and applied studies on the subject. In order to better understand the role of BBB we must consider its ontogenetic development. Experimental studies addressed this issue by way of verifying the presence of neurospecific antigens to show a gradual formation of the BBB structures when the completion of their formation not always coincide with the time of organism birth. These observations are very important for determination of the role of the BBB “breakthrough” in the occurrence of epilepsy, infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP) and other long-term neurological disorders which can be associated with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Understanding of the ontogeny of the BBB is also important in defining the modern diagnostic and treatment approaches including immunochemical verification of eurospecific proteins (NSP) in biological fluids and neuroprotective therapy.

About the Author

D. V. Blinov
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow
Russian Federation


1. Барашнев Ю.И. Перинатальная неврология. М. 2001; 640 с.

2. Блинов Д.В. Иммуноферментный анализ нейроспецифических антигенов в оценке проницаемости гематоэнцефалического барьера при перинатальном гипоксически-ишемическом поражении ЦНС (клинико-экспериментальное исследование). Дисс. ...канд. мед. наук. М. 2004; 153 с.

3. Блинов Д.В. Объективные методы определения тяжести и прогноза перинатального гипоксически-ишемического поражения ЦНС. Акушерство, гинекология и репродукция. 2011; 2: 5-12.

4. Блинов Д.В. Современные представления о нейробиохимическом строении и функциях гематоэнцефалического барьера. Часть 1: структурно-функциональная организация и факторы повреждения. Эпилепсия и пароксизмальные состояния. 2013; 3: 65-75.

5. Бредбери М. Концепция гематоэнцефалического барьера. М. 1983; 480 с.

6. Вишневский А.Г., Андреев Е.М., Трейвиш А.И. Перспективы развития России: роль демографического фактора. М. 2003; 61 с.

7. Лайкам К.Э., Антонова О.И., Белоконная Л.А., Бурденкова Е.С., Мельник Т.А., Муханова О.А., Ржаницына Л.С., Рыжикова З.А. Женщины и мужчины России: сб. стат. М. 2010; 283 с.

8. Предположительная численность населения Российской Федерации до 2030 года : (статистический бюллетень) / Федеральная служба государственной статистики. М. 2009. 235 с.

9. Суринов А.Е., Збарская И.А., Антонова О.И., Воробьева О.Д., Гончаров А.Н., Денисенко М.Б., Елизаров В.В., Иванова А.Е., Ионцев В.А., Никитина С.Ю., Орехина И.Н., Рахманинова М.В., Рязанцев С.В., Харькова Т.Л., Чудиновских О.С., Эченикэ В.Х. Демографический ежегодник России: сб. стат. M. 2009; 557 c.

10. Федоров В.П., Ушаков И.Б., Корденко А.Н. Структурно-функциональная организация гематоэнцефалического барьера. Изв. АН России. Сер. биол. 1989; 1: 24 с.

11. Чехонин В.П., Дмитриева Т.Б., Жирков Ю.А. Иммунохимический анализ нейроспецифических антигенов. М. 2000; 416 с.

12. Шнайдер Н.А., Пилюгина М.С., Дмитренко Д.В., Шматова Е.Н., Ерыкалова С.А. Частота встречаемости фармакорезистентной эпилепсии в Красноярском Крае (по данным неврологического центра университетской клиники). Эпилепсия и пароксизмальные состояния. 2010; 4: 32-36.

13. Штерн Л.С. Непосредственная питательная среда органов и тканей. М. 1960; 224 с.

14. Ballabh P., Braun A., Nedergaard M. The blood-brain barrier: an overview structure, regulation and clinical implications. Neurobiology of Disease. 2004; 16: 1-13.

15. Bass T., Singer G., Slusser J., Liuzzi F.J. Radial glial interaction with cerebral germinal matrix capillaries in the fetal baboon. Exp. Neurol. 1992; 118: 126-132.

16. Bauer H.C., Sonnleitner U., Bauer H. et al. Dev. Brain Res.1995; 86: 317-325.

17. Bauer H.C., Bauer H. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 1999; 20: 13-28.

18. Bradbery M.W., Deane R. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to lead. Neurotoxicology. 1993; 3: 1-6.

19. Braun L.D., Cornford E.M., Oldendorf W.H. Newborn rabbit blood-brain barrier is selectively permeable and differs substantially from the adult. J. Neurochem. 1980; 34: 147-152.

20. Brenton D.P., Gardiner R.M. Transport of L-phenylalanine and related amino acids at the ovine blood-brain barrier. J. Physiol. 1988; 402: 497-514.

21. Butt A.M., Jones H., Abbott N.J. J. Physiol. 1990; 429: 47-62.

22. Delorme P., Gayet J, Grignon G. Ultrastructural study on transcapillary exchanges in the developing telencephalon of the chicken. Brain Res. 1970; 22 (3): 269-83.

23. Dziegielewska K.M., Evans C.A., Malinowska D.H., Møllgård K., Reynolds J.M., Reynolds M.L., Saunders N.R. Studies of the development of brain barrier systems to lipid insoluble molecules in fetal sheep. J. Physiol. 1979; 292: 207-231.

24. Farrell C.Z., Risan W. Normal and abnormal development of the blood-brain barrier. Micrisc. Res. Tech. 1994; 27 (6): 495-506.

25. Ferguson R.K., Woodbury D.M. Penetration of 14C-inulin and 14C-sucrose into brain, cerebrospinal fluid and skeletal muscle of developing rats. Exp Brain Res. 1969; 7: 181-194.

26. Gould S.J., Howard S. An immunohistochemical study of the germinal layer I the late gestation human fetal brain. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 1987; 13: 421-437.

27. Jacobson M. Developmental neurobiology. New York. 1991.

28. Johanson C.E. Ontogeny of the blood-brain barrier. Implications of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation. New York. 1989; 157-198.

29. Joo F. Minireview: regulation messendger molecules of the permiability in the cerebral microvessels. Neurobiology. 1993; 1: 3-10.

30. Joo F. Insigt into the regulation messenger molecules of the permiability of the blood-brain barrier. Micr. Res. Tech. 1994; 27: 507-515.

31. Habgood M.D., Knott G.W., Dziegielewska K.M., Saunders N.R. The nature of the decrease in blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier exchange during postnatal brain development in the rat. J. Physiol. 1993; 468: 73-83.

32. Hambleton G., Wigglesworth J.S. Origin of intraventricular haemorrage in the preterm infant. Arch. Dis. Child. 1976; 51: 651-659.

33. Hewicker-Trautwein M., Trautwein G. An immunohistochemical study of the fetal sheep neocortex and cerebellum with antibodies against nervous system-specific proteins. J. Comp. Pathol. 1993; 109 (4): 409-421.

34. Hirase T., Staddon J.M., Saitou M., Ando-Akatsuka Y., Itoh M., Furuse M., Fujimoto K., Tsukita S., Rubin L.L. Occludin as a possible determinant of tight junction permeability in endothelial cells. J. Cell. Sci. 1998; 110, 1603-1613.

35. Krause D., Kurz I., Dermictzel R. Cerebral pericytes a second line of deference in controlling blood-brain barrier peptide metabolism. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1993; 331: 149-152.

36. Ment L.R., Stewart W.B., Ardito T.A., Madri J.A. Germinal matrix microvascular maturation correlates inversely with the risk period for neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 1996; 84: 142-149.

37. Rakik P. Mode of cell migration to the superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1972; 145 (1): 61-83.

38. Risau W., Hallmann R., Albrecht U. Differentiation-dependent expression of proteins in brain endothelium during development of the blood-brain barrier. Dev. Biol. 1986; 117: 537-545.

39. Roncali L., Nico B., Ribatti D., Bertossi M., Mancini L. Microscopical and ultrastructural investigations on the development of the blood-brain barrier in the chick embryo optic tectum. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1986; 70 (3-4): 193-20.

40. Sasaki A., Hirato J., Nakazato Y., Ishida Y. Immunohistochemical study of the early human fetal brain. Acta Neuropathol. 1988; 76: 128-134.

41. Saunders N.R. Development of the blood-brain barrier to macromolecules. The Fluids and Barriers of the Eye and Brain / M.B. Segal. Verlag MacMillan. 1991; 128-155.

42. Saunders N.R. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 1992; 103: 328-369.

43. Saunders N.R., Habgood M.D., Dziegielewska K.M. Barrier mechanisms in the brain, II. Immature brain. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 1999; 26: 85-91.

44. Schuize C., Firth J.A. Dev. Brain Res. 1992; 69: 85-96.

45. Schumacher U., Mollgård K. The multidrug-resistance P-glycoprotein (Pgp, MDR1) is an early marker of blood-brain barrier development in the microvessels of the developing human brain. Histochem Cell Biol. 1997; 108: 179-182.

46. Stern L., Peyrot R. Le fonctionnement de la barrière hémato-éncephalique aux divers stades de développement chez les diverses espèces animales. Compte Rendu Soc Biol. 1927; 96: 1124-1126.

47. Stern L. et al. Le fonctionnement de la barrière hémato-éncephalique aux divers stades de développement chez les diverses espèces animales. Compte Rendu Soc. Biol. 1929; 100: 231-233.

48. Stewart P.A., Hayakawa K Early ultrastructural changes in blood-brain barrier vessels of the rat embryo. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 1994; 78 (1): 25-34.

49. Szymonowicz W., Schafler K., Cussen L.J., Yu V.Y. Ultrasoundand necropsy study of periventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants. Arch. Dis. Child. 1984; 59: 637-642.

50. Volbrodt A.W., Dobrogowska, D.H. Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 1994; 32: 63-70.

51. Wakai S., Hirokawa N. Development of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier to horseradish peroxidase in the avian choroidal epithelium. Cell. Tissue Res. 1981; 214 (2): 271-278.

52. Wislocki G.B. Experimental studies on fetal absorption. I. The vitally stained fetus. Contrib. Embryol. Carnegie Inst. 1920; 5: 45-52.

For citation:


Views: 122

ISSN 2077-8333 (Print)
ISSN 2311-4088 (Online)