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Epilepsia and paroxyzmal conditions

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Vol 2, No 1 (2010)

DISTINCTIVE ARTICLES

37-46 135
Abstract
Two forms of occipital epilepsy of childhood are distinguished which are known as Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) and Gastaut syndrome (GS). This article reviews modern literature data on epidemiology, diagnosis, electro-clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment principles of both syndromes. Also, the results of observation of 17 children with PS aged from 4 to 13 years, for a period from 9 months to 8 years, are given. In the course of assessment of clinical encephalographic particular features of PS, the number of seizures recorded during the observation period was taken as a criterion of “severity” of disease course, namely: group A – less than 5 seizures, (5 children), and group B – over 5 seizures (12 children). Also, 30 children with established GS diagnosis aged from 3 to 14 years, and remained under observation for 1-8 years, were examined. Patients were divided in three groups based on the number of simple, complex partial seizures and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures before the beginning of anticonvulsant therapy. In the course of study the factors have been revealed that affect the frequency and severity of seizures, which defined the duration and intensity of treatment, as well as the prognosis of disease.

SCIENTIFIC SURVEYS

25-29 96
Abstract
Topiramate (Topamax®) is one of the most widely used modern anti-epileptic drugs (AED) in Russia. This is primarily due to the broad spectrum of activity of this drug. Its mechanism of action is complex and includes several components. It was shown that all main mechanisms of epilepsy development are within the pharmacological targets of this drug, which makes it distinguished among other AED. The drug is efficient in both focal and generalized forms of epilepsy. The following adverse effects of treatment may possibly develop: fatigability, thought disorder, headache and confused mental state. It should be borne in mind that the majority of adverse effects disappeared spontaneously in the course of treatment. Such adverse effects as reduction of body weight and nephrolithiasis generally occurred as long-term side effects of treatment.
30-36 102
Abstract
This article discusses the problem of impaired reproductive function and sexual health in male patients with epilepsy. Issues reviewed include the aetiology of these dysfunctions (most probably due to a variety of causes), epilepsy as such, as well as drugs used for its treatment; these issues are closely related to each other and have a considerable effect on the manifestations of this condition. Impairments of sex steroid concentrations, hypothalamic – pituitary function, as well as testicular function, form a basis for reproductive dysfunction in male patients with epilepsy. The psychosocial complications of epilepsy can have implications for reproductive health and sexual function. Practitioners should pay more attention to these problems, as patients frequently deny or fail to notice some of these disturbances.

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ISSN 2077-8333 (Print)
ISSN 2311-4088 (Online)