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Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions

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Vol 7, No 3 (2015)

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

6-17 156
Abstract

Interpreting of electroencephalographic (EEG) elements in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures, neurological complaints, is still a subject of debates until this day. Broad sharp waves (BSW) are rarely recognizable EEG pattern, not applicated, currently in an international directory of clinical electroencephalography. The aim of our study was the primary, a retrospective survey of pediatric patients (3 to 18 years) to confirm or to refute the data that plays a pattern BSW has the predictive value for the detection of epilepsy, and that it can be named as independent pattern in the EEG references. Matherials and methods. There were made 244 routine electroencephalography in length from 15 to 40 minutes for children aged 3 to 18 years from March 2013 to March 2014. That children were the patients of Psychoneurology department in Toushinskaya Childhood City Hospital, study was conducted at the child in a state of restful alertness of the patient and included the routine recording and three functional tests: a test with a closingopening eye; photostimulation and hyperventilation for three minutes. Data were analyzed retrospectively, and included the collection of these data – age, sex of the child, the type of dominant EEG rhythm, frequency of the alpha rhythm, guides and complaints diagnoses at admission, the presence of one or another of epileptic activity on the EEG localization of pathological elements on EEG, changes in the imaging, neurological clinic patient complaints. Results. Broad sharp wave pattern (BSW) was detected in 31 (12.7%) patient's routine EEG of 244 collected during the calendar year. BSWs were localized in the fronto-temporal region in 12 cases, in 12 cases – in the fronto-central region. Wherein – at least in 7 (22.6%) out of 31 cases were found changes during neuroimaging of the brain of the patient. In 6 cases, the admission of the child was developed by a generalized tonic or tonic-clonic seizure, in 4 cases – there were not attacks – there were routine EEGs, in 1 case – a simple dialeptic attack. Conclusions. It can be presumed that the BSW – specific focal pattern registrering in the EEG in patients, mainly with complaints of epileptic character, in anamnaesis morbie, the predominantly observed generalized clonic-tonic and / or tonic seizures. Quite often, during neuroimaging at these patients there have been revealed various changes. The BSWs is mainly characteristic of the frontal, frontotemporal or fronto-central regions. Thus, the pattern stitch is likely to play a predictive value for the detection of epilepsy, as an indicator of acute and / or remote brain damage. Pattern BSW requires further study, the randomized treatment and cross-sectional studies of patients and in the future may be may be recognized as an independent pattern.

18-25 149
Abstract

The aim of this work was to elucidate the structural-metabolic and neuropathophysiological features of epilepsy and migraine, as these diseases share common pathogenetic mechanisms.

Materials and methods. Seventy patients with migraine and fifty-six with epilepsy conducted a study using diffusion tensor MRI. Proton spectroscopy performed on 28 patients with epilepsy and 22 with migraine.

Results. Data were obtained, indicating changes in fractional anisotropy and average diffusion coefficient and concentration of the main neurometabolites for epilepsy and migraine that characterize the commonality of the pathogenesis of these diseases.

Conclusion. The research results allowed to establish the leading role of the hippocampus in the realization paroxysmal states and their pathophysiological basis of the comorbidity.

26-31 162
Abstract

Purpose – to study mental and emotional status of parents raising children with epilepsy.

Materials and methods. The level of mental and emotional state in 23 parents in families where children with epilepsy are raising was studied. Control group consisted 29 parents raising healthy children. The following questionnaires were used in our study:Torontoalexithimia scale (TAS) and the assessment of the quality of life by SF-36 questionnaire.

Results. Parents of children with epilepsy have showed a higher score on a scale of alexithimia and a higher chance of having an increased or high score on this test compared with parents of healthy children. Parents of children with epilepsy also have lower rates of almost all scales of SF-36, and a statistically significant lower score on the total mental health component.

Conclusion. The parents of children with epilepsy mental and emotional state is exposed to disorders and this fact need to be considered when developing treatment tactics of pediatric patients with epilepsy.

32-39 175
Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the structure of the state segment of the pharmaceutical market ofKrasnoyarskregion in terms of pharmacy sales of drugs for patients with epilepsy in the Program providing the necessary drugs at the expense of the federal budget for 2014.

Methods. We used the database of medications dispensed at the expense of the federal budget in patients with ICD code G40 in 2011, 2014.

Results. We revealed that in structure of the sold drugs, both in value and in kind antiepileptic drugs are more than 95%.

Conclusion. The organization of preferential drug supply of patients with epilepsy in theKrasnoyarskregion matches to the federal regulations.

SCIENTIFIC SURVEYS

40-45 128
Abstract

Paroxysmal dyskinesia comprise a significant and fascinating part of movement disorders, which represent a diagnostic challenge for neurologists working on the borderlands of psychiatry and epilepsy. The current classification based on the relation of attacks to a movement is supported by the response to treatment and genetic difference. We reviewed clinical characteristics and the main advances in genetics of these unique, usually hereditary diseases. Clinical diagnosis remains the key to the treatment choice. Psychogenic causes are common in sporadic cases, but paroxysmal dyskinesia secondary to systemic or primary neurological disorders should not be missed and warrant careful investigation.



ISSN 2077-8333 (Print)
ISSN 2311-4088 (Online)