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Epilepsia and paroxysmal conditions

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Vol 6, No 2 (2014)

DISTINCTIVE ARTICLES

6-11 120
Abstract
Abstract: the purpose is the study of frequency and prevalence of febrile seizures (FS) in childhood population at Krasnoyarsk city. Methods: the retrospective analysis of official medical records of infectious division of City Children’s Clinical Hospital № 1 (Krasnoyarsk) held us in 2009 to 2012. The prevalence of FS among children aged 0-14 years old ranged from 75 to 112 per 100 000 childhood population of Krasnoyarsk city in the period 2009-2012. Results and Discussion: children from newborn to 1 ye.o. with FS: - 114 (19.7%), from 1 to 3 ye.o. – 333 (57.6%), from 4 to 7 ye.o. – 109 (18.9%), older than 7 ye.o. 22 (3.8%). The greatest number of FS cases registered in 2010 – 177 (30.6%), and the lowest in 2009 – 130 (22.5%). The prevalence of FS in the Soviet intercity area (371.9 per 100 000 children from newborn to 14 ye.o.) gives the relevant indicators in Lenin`s and the October`s intercity areas (respectively 479.5 and 427.3 per 100 000 children from newborn to 14 ye.o.). Conclusions: Frequency and prevalence of FS in Krasnoyarsk city exceed those in the Russian Federation.
12-18 104
Abstract
Abstract: there are two main trends: gender aspects and reproductive problems in women with epilepsy. The second trend is relatively new and is associated with exposure to antiepileptic drugs, seizures in the hormonal status and reproductive functions. In international clinical trials of new antiepileptic drugs to study their adverse events on the reproductive system is still not compulsory. A prospective observational single-center uncontrolled study of antiepileptic drugs side effects on reproductive health of women with epilepsy performed. One hundred fifty five women with epilepsy in reproductive age were included in the study. Clinical diagnostic screening’s complex was developed and tested to diagnose of endocrine reproductive disorders in women with antiepileptic therapy of epilepsy. In conclusion, the primary assessment of the reproductive health status in epilepsy should conduct on the neurological visits. Safety of antiepileptic drug treatment should include of reproductive health monitoring consisting in the collection of gynecological anamnesis and clinical examination.
19-28 142
Abstract
Abstract: focal motor seizures with hyperkinetic automatisms (FSHA) – seizures with involves predominantly proximal limb or axial muscles producing irregular sequential ballistic movements. In our study we revealed FSHA in 1.5% of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures before 18 years old (n=1261). Onset of epilepsy with FSHA varied widely – from 9 month to 18 years of life; middle age of onset was 6.3 years ± 5.9 years. FSHA occurred in combination with 8 different types of seizures. Remission was achieved in 42.1% cases of epilepsy, associated with FSHA. Reduction of seizure frequency ≥50% on antiepileptic treatment was achieved in 42.1% of the patients.
29-33 133
Abstract
Abstract: epidemiological study of epilepsywas carried out in Minsk. Aim: study of the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in the gender-age population groups in Minsk. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out by assessing the medical data of the outpatient case report forms of patients with epilepsy who were seeking medical aid during the period 2008-2012. Results: Overall incidence of epilepsy ranged from 165.2 per 100,000 population in 2008 to 275.5 per 100,000 population in 2012; incidence of primary epilepsy ranged from 36.9 per 100,000 population in 2008 to 25.0 per 100,000 population in 2012. The prevalence of epilepsy was 6.06 per 1000 population. Etiological factors that increase the risk of developing epilepsy were head injuries (28.6%), neuroinfection (13.3%), chronic alcoholism (10.0%), vascular diseases of the brain (6.7%), perinatal pathology (5 , 2%), brain tumor (2.9%). In 33.3% of patients the cause of the disease has not been established. Conclusions: the prevalence of epilepsy in Minsk is comparable with the prevalence level in the European developed countries. It seems appropriate to create a unified electronic database of patients with epilepsy and continue studies targeted on finding ways for solving medical and social problems in the Republic of Belarus.
34-38 66
Abstract
Abstract: a viral infection of the central nervous system is a group of infectious diseases of high infectiousness and mortality in all age groups. Over the past decade, the structure of the viral lesions replaced polio and western encephalitis came slow and herpes infections. We first established the nature of qualitative and quantitative changes in the spectrum of free amino acids in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with epileptic syndrome in chronic viral neurological infection. The dependence of the concentration of essential amino acids in the analyzed pathology of cerebrospinal fluid protein level and severity of clinical manifestations has studied.
39-44 119
Abstract
Abstract: this article discusses the comparative efficacy and safety of valproic acid derivatives (various salts), and the original of generic drugs based on it, are the literature data and the results of our experimental and clinical studies on the interchangeability of original and generic drugs – valproic acid derivatives, in particular Depakin Chrono, Convulex Retard, Valparin XP and Enkorat Chrono. The results of the research, conclusions were drawn, which essentially boils down to if inability to provide original drugs, a transition to generic valproic acid, in particular Enkorat Chrono, is possible.

CLINICAL CASES

45-51 128
Abstract
Abstract: the article considers options of atypical course and atypical evolution of benign childhood epilepsy with central temporal spikes. Probable mechanism and scheme of development of benign focal epileptiform discharges of childhood on an EEG, their relation to epileptic seizures, as well as mechanism of development of secondary bilateral synchronization and electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep phase is described in the article. The authors suggest a key mechanism in development of atypical evolution through formation of reciprocal self-sustaining epileptic thalamo-cortico-thalamic closed circles, which pathogenesis is based on self-induction and recirculation of epileptiform activity by «re-entry» mechanism. The article presents a clinical example of atypical evolution of rolandic epilepsy into acquired epileptiform opercular syndrome. The authors describe basic principles and approaches to the treatment of syndromes with benign focal epileptiform discharges of childhood and ways of prevention of atypical evolution.

SCIENTIFIC SURVEYS

52-60 108
Abstract
Abstract: this article contains information about the principles of treatment different forms of epilepsy and a more detailed information about antiepileptic drug - topiramate. Based on the own research the authors evaluate the efficacy and safety of topiramate in children with different forms of epilepsy. The studied group consisted of 80 children - 36 boys and 44 girls (45% and 55% respectively) middle-aged 9,2±5 years. Generalized forms of epilepsy were diagnosed in 14 patients (18%), focal forms - in 66 patients (82%). Idiopathic forms of focal epilepsies in 19 patients (24%), cryptogenic forms – 21 patients (26%), symptomatic forms in 26 patients (32%). All patients have taken topiramate in meddle dose 5 mg/kg/day. As a monotherapy it was used in 43 patients (54%), in combination with one antiepileptic drug in 30 patients (38%), in combination with the other two drugs in 7 children (8%). The results of the study demonstrated the effectiveness of topiramate and safety in treatment of all forms of epilepsy in pediatric patients. The use of topiramate in children with idiopathic generalized and idiopathic focal forms and cryptogenic focal form of epilepsy was high effective. The authors conclude that increasing the effectiveness of topiramate in patients with symptomatic focal epilepsy can be achieved by increasing its dose higher then middle therapeutic.
61-70 128
Abstract

Abstract: The article is devoted to problem of the teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. The current approaches to refining birth defects in children whose mothers took the valproic acid drugs during pregnancy are described. The authors are presented the clinical cases for discussion. 

ACTUAL OPINIONS AND COMMENTS

71-79 155
Abstract
Abstract: the article considers historical aspects of formation and development of epileptology in the XX century. it provides interesting facts about directions of development of English, German, French schools of epilepsy. The contribution of parallel developing schools of epilepsy in the U.S. and Canada is highlighted. The article describes formation of domestic epileptology associated in the XIX century with the names of A.Ya. Kozhevnikov and V.M. Bechterev, and, in the XX century, with the names of outstanding Soviet scientists and organizers- D.G. Schaefer, P.M. Sarajishvili, Y.N. Savchenko, Y.i. Belyaev.Successful educational programs under the auspices of Ye.I.Gusev and A.B. Gecht are also outlined in the article.An important aspect of modern epileptology is the integration with other therapeutic areas and directions, such as obstetrics and gynecology, surgery, neurogenetics etc. The article describes the new direction in epileptology - study of "epilepsy without seizures" or epileptic encephalopathy version without seizure. Particular attention is paid to problems, solutions of which are necessary for further development of Russian epileptology.


ISSN 2077-8333 (Print)
ISSN 2311-4088 (Online)